INSIDE LONGWOOD
L'autre Sainte-Hélène - The other St. Helena

CHRONOLOGY - 1821
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New Longwood House
New Longwood House, completed but never inhabited by Napoleon

8-9 January – Antommarchi administers tonic pills to Napoleon based on quinquina, then other ones based on valerian ; his patient suffers bad reactions from the treatment

15 January – Hudson Lowe has an interview with Buonavita at Longwood, because he asked to be sent back to Europe : 
« The Abbé appearance corresponds to what he stated of his infirmities. »

20 January – Hudson Lowe is surprised by Antommarchi's daily routine while he declares his patient to be very ill : 
«
Professor Antommarchi continues his usual rides almost every day. »

21 January – A seesaw is installed in the billiard room of Longwood, to allow Napoleon to take some exercise

23 January – Napoleon calls for Antommarchi at the middle of the night : the doctor is with Madame Bertrand

26 January – Lutyens is interviewed by Hudson Lowe to explain his reports about Napoleon's ghastly appearance : 
« His face was thinner than it was some time back and perfectly white. A white as that sheet of paper. »

27 January – Hudson Lowe informs Montholon that Antommarchi has just submitted a request to be sent back to Europe

30 January – Napoleon requests that his physician would be replaced : 
« Mr. Antommarchi, his surgeon, is not capable of rescuing him in the present state of his illness. » 
Napoleon also accepts the replacement of Bertrand who requested to return to Europe.


1st February – Madame Bertrand is dangerously ill : she has another miscarriage

9 February – Gentilini arrives to St. Helena from The Cape, on his way to England

13 February – Hudson Lowe announces to Bathurst that the new house at Longwood is ready

18 February – Napoleon has a vomiting crisis during the dinner
Despair at Longwood
All the hopes are lost

19 February – Admiral Lambert sends a giant tortoise to Longwood's cook : Napoleon likes the soup

27 February – Abraham Millington, the metal worker, is called to Longwood to reduce the length of the feet of Napoleon's iron bed
Napoleon's deathbed
Napoleon's iron bed, on which he died

5 March – Montholon writes to his wife about his lack of hope to see Napoleon recover : « This cursed St. Helena will claim his life. »

17 March – Napoleon complaints about sharp pains in the stomach like a « penknife. »
Buonavita leaves the island

19 March – New crisis of vomiting, while Antommarchi is not at Longwood : « It is impossible to make him understand how severe is the Emperor's state of health. »
 
21 March – Napoleon suffers from another crisis of vomiting, this time in Antommarchi's presence, and rejects some « black » susbtance

22 March – Antommarchi administers some emetics to Napoleon : 
« The resulting effets are the most violent. »


23 March – Napoleon refuses to pursue in the treatment advised by Antommarchi, who then dilutes some emetics in his drinks, unwittingly : 
« He called poor Antommarchi
an assassin and declared he will no longer see him. »

24 March – Noverraz becomes ill, while Marchand is just recovering

26 March – Napoleon calls in Vignali to help him with personal treatment
Dying Napoleon - by Vincenzo Vela
Napoleon during his last illness

28 March – Napoleon complains about gastric pains : 
«
His belly was as hard and tight as a drum. »

30 March – Hudson Lowe gives an ultimatum to Montholon : Napoleon must receive Dr. Arnott, or show himself up

31 mars – Dr. Francis Burton arrives at St. Helena

1st April – Dr. Arnott has a first consultation with Napoleon at 9 P.M. : 
«
The room was dark as I could not see him, but I felt him or some one else. »

2 April – Medical examination of Napoleon by Arnott : he disagrees with Antommarchi about the treatment to prescribe

7 April – Arnott declares to Hudson Lowe that Napoleon only suffers from hypocondriasis

9 April – Napoleon refuses to receive Antommarchi any more : 
« Antommarchi's conduct cannot be explained. »


11 April – Arnott examines Noverraz, who is very ill

13 April – Napoleon's loss of weight : 
«
General Bonaparte himself said ‘The devil had eaten his legs’. »

14 April – Napoleon begins to write his will

17 April – Napoleon is moved to the Salon, his bedroom being too small for attendance at his bedside

17 April – Arnott confirms his diagnostic of hypocondriasis
«
If a 74-gun frigate appeared in the bay to set him at liberty, Napoleon would be up and on his legs directly ! »

20 April – Napoleon calls in Vignali to discuss the preparations for the religious functions after his death

20 April – Mrs Saint-Denis gets ill as well : 
« Our Longwood has turned into some kind of hospital. »


21 April – Napoleon dismisses Antommarchi once more from his service

26 April – Lutyens is relieved from duties at Longwood and replaced by Capt. William Crokat
 
27 April – Arnott is (finally) alarmed by the state of health of Napoleon :  « General Bonaparte had become considerably worse than he had ever seen him before. » 
Napoleon vomits some black substance looking like « coffee ground »


28 April – Hudson Lowe requests that a medical council would urgently be arranged at Napoleon's bedside

1st May – Hudson Lowe informs the official persons about Napoleon's state of health : « The last accounts leave no hope whatever. »

3 May – At about 6 P.M., the medical council decides to administer to Napoleon a strong dose of calomel, against Antommarchi's opinion who tries to explain the violent side effects he had already experienced with such treatment

4 May – Napoleon has persistent hiccups ; during the night, he is restless and agitated, with delirium

5 May – Napoleon dies at 5:49 P.M. : 
« Only death proved to us that he was mortal. »


The death of Napoleon - 5 may 1821
Napoleon's death in Longwood, 5 May 1821

Apotheosis of Napoleon
Napoleon's apotheosis

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